Metformin 500 mg
Brand Name: – ZULIP-500 (METFORMIN 500 mg)
Composition: – Each tablet contains 500mg Metformin
Packing: – 10*10
1. Pharmacodynamics: – Metformin is an oral antihyperglycemic agent that improves glucose tolerance in patients with NIDDM, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other class of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with NIDDM or healthy subjects and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. Metformin does not affect insulin secretion.
a.) Aborption: – Absorbed over 6 hours, bioavailability is 50 to 60% under fasting conditions. Administration with food decreases and delays absorption. Some evidence indicates that the level of absorption is not dose-related, suggesting that absorption occurs through a saturable process. Limited data from animal and human cell cultures indicate that absorption occurs through a passive, non-saturable process, possibly involving a paracellular route. Peak action occurs 3 hours after oral administration.
b.) Volume of Distribution: – 654 L for metformin 850 mg administered as a single dose. The volume of distribution following IV administration is 63-276 L, likely due to less binding in the GI tract and/or different methods used to determine volume of distribution.
c.) Protein Binding: – Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins.
d.) Metabolism: – Metformin is not metabolized.
e.) Route Elimination: – Intravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion. Approximately 90% of the drug is eliminated in 24 hours in those with healthy renal function. Renal clearance of metformin is approximately 3.5 times that of creatinine clearance, indicating the tubular secretion is the primary mode of metformin elimination.
f.) Half-Life:- 6.2 hours. Duration of action is 8-12 hours.
g.) Clearance: – 718-1552 mL/minute following single oral dose of 0.5-1.5 g. Metformin is removed by hemodialysis at a rate of approximately 170 ml/min under good hemodynamic conditions.
h.) Toxicity: – Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 350 mg/kg [Rabbit]. It would be expected that adverse reactions of a more intense character including epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting followed by diarrhea, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, malaise and headache might be seen.
For use as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adult patients (18 years and older) with NIDDM. May also be used for the management of metabolic and reproductive abnormalities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Jentadueto is for the treatment of patients when both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.